Difference between revisions of "Germaanish"

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++, ny smoo ry chur rish
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(++, ny smoo ry chur rish)
 
Ta'n Germaanish screeuit sheese 'syn [[Abbyrlhit Romanagh|abbyrlhit Ladjynagh]]. Goll rish ny 26 lettyryn cadjin, ta tree breeocklyn ayn as [[Umlaut (scarreydagh)|''umlaut''yn]] orroo (Ä/ä, Ö/ö, and Ü/ü) as y lettyr [[ß]].
 
==Reamys y Ghermaanish==
 
Ta boodeeyssyn dy Ghermaanisheyryn ry-gheddyn ayns eear-choloin Germaanagh ny [[Yn Nameeb|Nameeb]], steat ren geddyn magh e neuchrogheydys veih'n [[Yn Affrick Yiass|Affrick Yiass]] 'sy vlein 1990, myrane lesh ayns king jurnaa arraghey magh Germaanagh gys [[ny Steatyn Unnaneysit]], [[Yn Chanadey|y Chanadey]], [[Meksico]], [[Yn Phobblaght Ghominicagh|y Phobblaght Ghominicagh]], [[Yn Vrasseel|y Vrasseel]], [[yn Argenteen]], [[Yn Pharaguay|y Pharaguay]], [[yn Ooraguay]], [[Yn Çhillee|y Çhillee]], [[Yn Pheroo|y Pheroo]], [[Yn Veneswaaley|y Veneswaaley]] (raad hie yn abbyrt [[Alemán Coloniero]] er ny lhiassaghey), yn Affrick Yiass, as [[yn Austrail]]. 'Sy Nameeb ta undinyssyn ynsee Germaanish freillt ec Germaanee ny Nameeb.
 
Rere [[Global Reach]] (2004), ta 6.9% jeh pobbyl yn eddyr-voggyl ny Ghermaanisheyryn.<ref name = "Global Reach">[http://global-reach.biz/globstats/index.php3 Global Statistics], [http://global-reach.biz./ Global Reach].</ref><ref name = "NVTC">[http://www.nvtc.gov/lotw/months/november/internetLanguages.htm Internet Languages], [http://www.nvtc.gov/ NVTC].</ref> Rere Netz-tipp (2002), ta 7.7% jeh duillagyn yn eddyr-voggyl screeuit 'sy Ghermaanish,<ref name=netz>{{cite web|url=http://www.netz-tipp.de/languages.html |title=Distribution of languages on the Internet |publisher=Netz-tipp.de |date= |accessdate=2010-03-15}}</ref> as rere shen t'ee ny nah hengey smoo lurg y Vaarle ayns possan ny çhengaghyn Oarpagh. Myrane lesh shen, t'ad gra dy vel 12% jeh ymmydeyryn Google goaill ynnyd jeh'n eddyr-oaie Germaanish.<ref name=netz />
 
[[Coadan:NamibiaDeutscheSprache.jpg|thumb|Sambylyn y Ghermaanish 'sy theihll laaoil 'sy Nameeb]]
{| class="wikitable sortable"
|-
! scope="col" | Çheer
! scope="col" | Lught ny Germaanisheyryn (çheumooie jeh'n Oarpey)<ref name="Handwörterbuch">[http://www.bpb.de/wissen/08937231579775312662617270950640,1,0,Auslandsdeutsche.html#art1 Handwörterbuch des politischen Systems der Bundesrepublik] ('sy Ghermaanish). Cha nel y farrane cur agh "seyraanee eebyrtagh ny Germaan" er son ny Nameeb as ny h-Affrick Yiass!</ref>
|-
| {{brattagh|the United States|Ny Steatyn Unnaneysit{{!}}SUA}} || 5,000,000
|-
| {{brattagh|Brazil|Yn Vrasseel{{!}}Y Vrasseel}} || 3,000,000
|-
| {{brattagh|Argentina|Yn Argenteen}} || 1,400,000
|-
| {{brattagh|Canada|Yn Chanadey{{!}}Y Chanadey}} || 450,000<ref name="Handwörterbuch" /> – 620,000<ref name="Statcan">{{cite web|url=http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census06/data/topics/RetrieveProductTable.cfm?ALEVEL=3&APATH=3&CATNO=&DETAIL=0&DIM=&DS=99&FL=0&FREE=0&GAL=0&GC=99&GK=NA&GRP=1&IPS=&METH=0&ORDER=1&PID=89189&PTYPE=88971&RL=0&S=1&ShowAll=No&StartRow=1&SUB=705&Temporal=2006&Theme=70&VID=0&VNAMEE=&VNAMEF=&GID=837928 |title=Statistics Canada 2006 |publisher=2.statcan.ca |date=2010-01-06 |accessdate=2010-03-15}}</ref>
|-
| {{brattagh|Mexico|Meksico}} || 200,000
|-
| {{brattagh|Australia|Yn Austrail}} || 110,000
|-
| {{brattagh|South Africa|Yn Affrick Yiass}} || 75,000 (seyraanee eebyrtagh ny Germaan ny lomarcan)<ref name="Handwörterbuch" />
|-
| {{brattagh|Chile|Yn Çhillee{{!}}Y Çhillee}} || 40,000
|-
| {{brattagh|Paraguay|Yn Pharaguay{{!}}Y Pharaguay}} || 30,000 – 40,000
|-
| {{brattagh|New Zealand|Yn Teelynn Noa{{!}}Y Teelynn Noa}} || 37,500
|-
| {{brattagh|Namibia|Yn Nameeb{{!}}Y Nameeb}} || 30,000 (seyraanee eebyrtagh ny Germaan ny lomarcan)<ref name="Handwörterbuch" />
|-
| {{brattagh|Venezuela|Yn Veneswaaley{{!}}Y Veneswaaley}} || 10,000
|-
| {{brattagh|Jordan|Yn Jordaan{{!}}Y Jordaan}} || 50,000
|}
 
===Yn Oarpey===
[[Coadan:Knowledge of German EU map.svg|thumb|200px|Fys er y Ghermaanish 'syn [[Yn Unnaneys Oarpagh|Unnaneys Oarpagh]] as ayns çheeraghyn cochianglt]]
 
Er y chooid smoo, ta'n Ghermaanish goll er loayrt 'sy [[Çhengaghyn ny Germaan|Ghermaan]] (raad t'ee myr y phreeu-hengey ec 95% jeh mooinjer y çheer), 'syn [[çhengaghyn ny h-Austeyr|Austeyr]] (89%), 'syn [[çhengaghyn ny h-Elveeish|Elveeish]] (65%), as ec y chooid smoo jeh pobbyl [[Lucsemburg]], as [[Liechtenstein]].
 
Ta boodeeyssyn Germaanisheyryn Oarpagh ry-gheddyn 'syn [[Yn Iddaal Hwoaie|Iddaal Hwoaie]] (ayns [[Tirol Yiass]] as ayns baljaghtyn ennagh ayns queiggaghyn elley), ayns [[Pobbyl ny Germaanisheyryn 'sy Velg|Cantoonyn Hiar]] ny [[Yn Velg|Belg]], ayns ardjyn [[Yn Rank|Frangagh]] ny [[Yn Alsaash|h-Alsaash]] as [[Lorraine (ard)|Lorraine]], as ayns baljyn beggey joarree yn eear-choontae [[Coontae Jylland Yiass|Jylland Yiass]] 'sy [[Yn Danvarg|Danvarg]].
 
Ta boodeeyssyn Germaanisheyryn ry-gheddyn 'sy [[Yn Phobblaght Çheck|Phobblaght Çheck]], 'sy [[Yn Clovack|Clovack]], 'syn [[Yn Ungaar|Ungaar]], 'sy [[Yn Pholynn|Pholynn]], 'sy [[Yn Romaan|Romaan]], 'sy [[Yn Serb|Terb]], 'sy [[Yn Roosh|Roosh]] as 'sy [[Yn Chassaghstaan|Chassaghstaan]]. Haghyr jee-chlannaghey 'sy chooid smoo jeh ny boodeeyssyn shen lurg ruightaghyn ny Germaanee lurg [[Yn Nah Chaggey Mooar|y Nah Chaggey Mooar]] as ayns ny 1980yn as ny 1990yn as mooarane dy Ghermaanee garraghey gys y Ghermaan.
 
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===South America===
 
In Brazil the largest concentrations of German speakers are in [[Rio Grande do Sul]] (where [[Riograndenser Hunsrückisch]] developed), [[Santa Catarina (state)|Santa Catarina]], [[Paraná (state)|Paraná]], [[São Paulo]] and [[Espírito Santo]]. There are also important concentrations of German-speaking descendants in [[Argentina]], [[Paraguay]], [[Venezuela]], [[Bolivia]] and [[Chile]]. The elder people of Pozuzo, in Peru (the only Austrian-German colony in the world) still communicate in their traditional Austrian, upper Inn valley dialect. In the 20th century, over 100,000 German [[refugee|political refugees]] and invited entrepreneurs settled in [[Latin America]], in countries such as [[Costa Rica]], [[Panama]], Venezuela, and the Dominican Republic, to establish German-speaking enclaves, and reportedly there is a small [[German immigration to Puerto Rico]]. Nearly all inhabitants of the city of [[Pomerode]] in the state of [[Santa Catarina (state)|Santa Catarina]] in Brazil can speak German. However, in most other locations where German immigrants settled, the vast majority of their descendents no longer speak German, as they have been largely assimilated into the host language and culture of the specific location of settlement; generally English in North America, and Spanish or Portuguese in Latin America.
 
===North America===
{{main|German in the United States|Pennsylvania German|Plautdietsch|Hutterite German}}
 
In the United States, the states of [[North Dakota]] and [[South Dakota]] are the only states where German is the most common language spoken at home after English (the second most spoken language in other states is either Spanish or French).<ref name = "US Census">{{cite web|url=http://www.census.gov/population/cen2000/phc-t20/tab05.pdf |title=Table 5. Detailed List of Languages Spoken at Home for the Population 5 Years and Over by State: 2000 |format=PDF |date= |accessdate=2010-03-15}}</ref> An indication of the German presence can be found in the names of such places as New Ulm and many other towns in Minnesota; [[Bismarck, North Dakota|Bismarck]] (state capital), [[Munich, North Dakota|Munich]], [[Karlsruhe, North Dakota|Karlsruhe]], and [[Strasburg, North Dakota|Strasburg]] in North Dakota; [[New Braunfels]] and Muenster in Texas; and Kiel, [[Berlin, Wisconsin|Berlin]] and [[Germantown, Wisconsin|Germantown]] in Wisconsin.
 
Between 1843 and 1910, more than 5 million Germans emigrated overseas,<ref>Henry Steele Commager (1961). "''[http://books.google.com/books?id=Czlg39-Z75kC&pg=PA102&dq&hl=en#v=onepage&q=&f=false Immigration and American history: essays in honor of Theodore C. Blegen]''". U of Minnesota Press. p.102. ISBN 0-8166-5735-1</ref> mostly to the United States.<ref>49.2 million [[German Americans]] as of 2005 according to the {{cite web |url=http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IPTable?_bm=y&-reg=ACS_2005_EST_G00_S0201:535;ACS_2005_EST_G00_S0201PR:535;ACS_2005_EST_G00_S0201T:535;ACS_2005_EST_G00_S0201TPR:535&-qr_name=ACS_2005_EST_G00_S0201&-qr_name=ACS_2005_EST_G00_S0201PR&-qr_name=ACS_2005_EST_G00_S0201T&-qr_name=ACS_2005_EST_G00_S0201TPR&-ds_name=ACS_2005_EST_G00_&-TABLE_NAMEX=&-ci_type=A&-redoLog=false&-charIterations=047&-geo_id=01000US&-format=&-_lang=en|coauthors=United States Census Bureau|title=US demographic census|accessdate=2007-08-02}}; the 1990 census gives 57.9 million, or 23.3% of the U.S. population.</ref> German remained an important medium for churches, schools, newspapers, and even the administration of the [[United States Brewers' Association]]<ref>[http://books.google.com/books?id=HhQZAAAAYAAJ&dq=%22United%20States%20Brewers'%20Association%22%20reports%20of%20proceedings&pg=PA118#v=onepage&q=german&f=false Documentary History of the United States Brewers' Association]</ref> through the early 20th century, but was severely repressed during [[World War I]]. Over the course of the 20th century many of the descendants of 18th century and 19th century immigrants ceased speaking German at home, but small populations of elderly (as well as some younger) speakers can be found in [[Pennsylvania]] ([[Amish]], [[Hutterites]], [[Dunkard Township, Greene County, Pennsylvania|Dunkards]] and some [[Mennonites]] historically spoke [[Hutterite German]] and a [[West Central German]] variety of German known as [[Pennsylvania German language|Pennsylvania Dutch]]), [[Kansas]] (Mennonites and [[Volga German]]s), North Dakota (Hutterite Germans, Mennonites, [[History of Germans in Russia and the Soviet Union|Russian Germans]], Volga Germans, and [[Baltic Germans]]), [[South Dakota]], [[Montana]], [[Texas]] ([[Texas German]]), [[Wisconsin]], [[Indiana]], [[Oregon]], [[Louisiana]] and [[Oklahoma]]. A significant group of German [[Pietists]] in [[Iowa]] formed the [[Amana Colonies]] and continue to practice speaking their heritage language. Early twentieth century immigration was often to [[St. Louis, Missouri|St. Louis]], [[Chicago]], [[New York]], [[Milwaukee]], [[Pittsburgh]] and [[Cincinnati]].
 
[[File:Bundesarchiv Bild 137-005795, Deutsche Zeitungen in Nordamerika.jpg|thumb|upright|[[German_in_the_United_States#German-language_press|German-language newspapers in the U.S.]] in 1922]]
 
In [[Canada]], there are 622,650 speakers of German according to the most recent census in 2006,<ref name="Statcan" /> while people of German ancestry ([[German Canadians]]) are found throughout the country. German-speaking communities are particularly found in [[British Columbia]] (118,035) and [[Ontario]] (230,330).<ref name="Statcan"/> There is a large and vibrant community in the city of [[Kitchener, Ontario]], which was at one point named Berlin. German immigrants were instrumental in the country's three largest urban areas: [[Montreal]], [[Toronto]], and [[Vancouver]]; while post-[[Second World War]] immigrants managed to preserve a fluency in the German language in their respective neighborhoods and sections. In the first half of the 20ᵗʰ century, over a million [[German-Canadian]]s made the language Canada's third most spoken after [[French language|French]] and [[English language|English]].
 
In Mexico there are also large populations of [[German Mexican|German ancestry]], mainly in the cities of: [[Mexico City]], [[Puebla]], [[Mazatlán]], [[Tapachula]], [[Ecatepec de Morelos]], and larger populations scattered in the states of [[Chihuahua (state)|Chihuahua]], [[Durango]], and [[Zacatecas]]. German ancestry is also said to be found in neighboring towns around [[Guadalajara, Jalisco]] and much of Northern Mexico, where German influence was immersed into the Mexican culture. Standard German is spoken by the affluent German communities in Puebla, Mexico City, [[Nuevo León]], [[San Luis Potosí]] and [[Quintana Roo]].
 
The dialects of German which are or were primarily spoken in colonies or communities founded by German-speaking people resemble the dialects of the regions the founders came from. For example, Pennsylvania German resembles [[Palatinate German]] dialects, and Hutterite German resembles dialects of [[Carinthia (state)|Carinthia]]. [[Texas German]] is a dialect spoken in the areas of Texas settled by the [[Adelsverein]], such as New Braunfels and Fredericksburg. In the [[Amana Colonies]] in the state of Iowa, [[Amana German]] is spoken. [[Plautdietsch]] is a large [[minority language]] spoken in Northern Mexico by the [[Mennonite]] communities, and is spoken by more than 200,000 people in Mexico. [[Pennsylvania German language|Pennsylvania Dutch]] is a dialect of German spoken by the [[Amish]] population of Pennsylvania, Indiana, and Ohio.
 
[[Hutterite German]] is an Upper German dialect of the [[Austro-Bavarian]] variety of the German language, which is spoken by Hutterite communities in Canada and the United States. Hutterite is spoken in the U.S. states of [[Washington (U.S. state)|Washington]], [[Montana]], [[North Dakota]], [[South Dakota]], and [[Minnesota]]; and in the Canadian provinces of [[Alberta]], [[Saskatchewan]] and [[Manitoba]]. Its speakers belong to some Schmiedleit, Lehrerleit, and Dariusleit Hutterite groups, but there are also speakers among the older generations of Prairieleit (the descendants of those Hutterites who chose not to settle in colonies). Hutterite children who grow up in the colonies learn to speak Hutterite German before learning English, the standard language of the surrounding areas, in school. Many of these children, though, continue with German Grammar School, in addition to public school, throughout a student's elementary education.{{Citation needed|date=February 2012}}
 
=== Africa - Namibia ===
{{Main|German language in Namibia}}
German is spoken by about 25-30,000 people as a mother tongue in the former German colony of Namibia. Though it no longer enjoys status as an official language, it is used in a wide variety of spheres, especially business and tourism, as well as churches (most notably the German-speaking [[Evangelical Lutheran Church in Namibia (GELK)]]), schools (e.g. the [[Deutsche Höhere Privatschule Windhoek]]), literature (German-Namibian authors include [[Giselher W. Hoffmann]]), radio (German-language programming of the [[Namibian Broadcasting Corporation]]), and music (e.g. artist [[EES (rapper)|EES]]).
 
===Australia===
In [[Australia]], the state of [[South Australia]] experienced a pronounced wave of immigration in the 1840s from Prussia (particularly the [[Silesia]] region). With the prolonged isolation from other German speakers and contact with [[Australian English]] some have suggested a unique dialect formed known as [[Barossa German]] spoken predominantly in the [[Barossa Valley]] near [[Adelaide]]. Usage sharply declined with the advent of [[World War I]], due to the prevailing anti-German sentiment in the population and related government action. It continued to be used as a first language into the twentieth century but now its use is limited to a few older speakers.{{Citation needed|date=February 2012}}
 
===New Zealand===
German migration to New Zealand in the 19th century was less pronounced than migration from Britain, Ireland, and perhaps even Scandinavia. Despite this there were significant pockets of German speaking communities which lasted until the first decades of the 20th century. German-speakers settled principally in [[Puhoi]], [[Nelson, New Zealand|Nelson]], and [[Gore, New Zealand|Gore]]. Puhoi was settled by Bohemians, and these settlers retained the Egerlaender dialect long after it had died out in its native land. It is estimated that a few dozen inhabitants still speak this dialect fluently.
 
At the last census (2006), 37,500 people in New Zealand spoke German. This made German the third most spoken European language after English and French and overall the ninth most spoken language. German is something of an invisble minority language, however, as most speakers, other than the very young, are fluent in English. Unlike some less widely spoken languages (for example Korean, [[Niuean language|Niuean]], and Cook Island Maori), government departments make no provision for communication with German speakers in their language.
 
===Asia===
There is also an important German [[German-based creole languages|creole]] being studied and recovered, named [[Unserdeutsch]], spoken in the former German colony of [[Papua New Guinea]], across [[Micronesia]] and in northern Australia (i.e. coastal parts of [[Queensland]] and [[Western Australia]]), by a few elderly people. The risk of its extinction is serious and efforts to revive interest in the language are being implemented by scholars. A few Indonesian elderly may also speak German.-->
 
== Sambyl ==