Craishteyder

(Aa-enmyssit ass Craishteyder an-ghraagh)

Ta craishteyder çheet er dooinney ta ardjaghey, moylley, taishbyney, ny soilshey magh gientynyn traghtee (eaddeeyn fassan ayns taishbynyssyn fassan son y chooid smoo), ny gobbraghey myr coodaghyn sooilley da deiney ta croo obbraghyn ellyn, ny ta cur adsyn hene ny hassoo son fotografeeaght. Ga dy nee mraane y chooid smoo jeh craishteyderyn, ta craishteyderyn firryn ayn chammah, son craishtey eaddeeyn er lheh. Foddee craishteyderyn gobbraghey dy keirdagh dy taghyrtagh.

Craishteyder ta cur ny hassoo er strane fotografeeaght hampleyragh

Ta'n craishtey coontit myr sorçh er lheh jeh'n chloie theayagh, neughollrish cloie ny daunse. Ga nagh vel yn anchaslys leayr eddyr y chraishtey as y cloie, cha nel tuarystalyn ayns scannaneyn ny ayns cloiaghyn coontit myr "craishtey". Gollrish shen, cha nel tuarystalyn ayns soilsheeyn çhellveeish coontit myr craishtey. Dy cadjin, cha nel y craishteyder loayrt. Cha nel barelyn persoonagh currit roish son y chooid smoo as ta ard-ghoo as caslys y chraishteyder coontit feer scanshoil.

Ta sorçhyn jeh'n chraishtey goaill stiagh: craishteyderyn fassan, drualtagh, follanid, bikini, ellyn ooasle, moyllagh, an-ghraagh as traghtee. Shimmey cummey ym-ysseraght ta taishbyney craishteyderyn: lioaryn, earishlioaryn, pabyryn-naight, yn eddyr-voggyl, as y çhellveeish. Ta'n craishtey fassan myr keird ry-akin ayns scannaneyn (Prêt-à-Porter as Looker), claareeyn çhellveeish rieughid (Britain's Next Top Model as The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency) as feeshanyn kiaull ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters" as "Blurred Lines").

SorçhynEdit

Craishtey fassanEdit

Craishtey roievollaghEdit

 
Craishteyderyn fassan er y roievollagh car Los Angeles Fashion Week, 2008

Ta craishteyderyn roievollagh taishbyney eaddeeyn voish kiaddeyderyn fassan, yn ym-ysseraght fassan, as kionneyderyn. T'ad enmyssit "craishteyderyn bio" dy mennick foast as t'ad hene-failt. Er yrjid, ta fir ny s'yrjey na 5'11" (180 cm) as ta mraane ny s'yrjey na 5'7" (170 cm). Ta craishteyderyn roievollagh gobbraghey ayns ram buill eigsoylagh, garraghey eddyr caaryn raad ta'n fassan mie er enney—Caayr York Noa, Lunnin, Paarys, as Milano. Ta caayryn fassan jeh'n nah straih goaill stiagh y Raue, Firenze, y Veneesh, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, as Moscow.

Ta slatyn towshan son craishteyderyn roievollagh goaill stiagh shirreydyssyn yrjid as trimmid er lheh. Car taishbynyssyn roievollagh, lhisagh ny craishteyderyn ceaghley ny h-eaddeeyn as y jeshaghey oc. Ta ny craishteyderyn shooyll, cassey, as shassoo dy haishbyney troyn garmad. Lhisagh ad goll dys quaaltyssyn son nyn gurrymyn y chur roish.[1] Myr smoo vees y cliaghtey ec y chraishteyder, ny s'liklee t'eh da'n chraishteyder ve failt da taishbynys fassan. Foddee craishteyder roievollagh gobbraghey ayns rheamyssyn elley, lheid as taishbynyssyn fassan shappyn yl-rheynnagh, as ta ny craishteyderyn smoo rahoil croo nyn linnaghyn gientyn hene ny goll stiagh 'sy chloie dy mennick.[2]

Ta'n British Association of Model Agents (AMA) ("Sheshaght Ghoaldagh ny Jantee Chraishtee") gra dy lhisagh craishteyderyn bwoirrin ve mysh 34"-24"-34" er towshan as eddyr 5' 8" as 5' "11 er yrjid (1.73 m - 1.80 m).[3] S'feer hanney yn craishteyder sampleyragh. Foddee ad nagh vel roshtyn ny shirreydyssyn towshan ve nyn graishteyderyn ard-vooadys.[4] Rere ynnyd-eggey yn New York Better Business Career Services website, t'ad ny towshanyn reih da craishteyder firryn na ve eddyr 5' 11" (180 cm) as 6' 2" (188 cm) er yrjid, marish bouin eddyr 26" as 32" (66.04–81.28 cm) as cleeau eddyr 39" as 40" (99.06–101.60 cm).[5] Ta craishteyderyn roievollagh firryn feer hanney as mie hionnit.[6]

Lhisagh craishteyderyn firryn as bwoirrin ve leayr 'sy chrackan, marish folt slayntoil, as troyn eddin tayrnyssagh. Ta linnaghyn stiuree geyrey da trimmid as coreiryn y chorp jannoo ny slatyn towshan reihyssagh. Ta ny craishteyderyn briwnyssit er bun ny linnaghyn stiuree shen er bun roie. Foddee ceaghlaghyn ardjynagh as rere y vargey ve ayn, croghey er beoynyn roie y lhing, ny jantee ny ny custameyryn.

Roish shoh, va'd ny towshanyn shirree da craishteyderyn na 35"-23.5"-35" (90-60-90 cm), towshanyn lhiassit Marilyn Monroe. Ta towshanyn ny craishteyderyn fassan y laa jiu ny s'niessey da cummey reiht yn AMA, agh ta fir jeu – goaill stiagh y craishteyder Afghaanagh Zohre Esmaeli – foast 35"-23.5"-35" er towshan. Ansherbee, ayns unnidyn fassan ennagh, smoo miandagh y mooadys 00 na'n mooadys 0.

Ta cummey thanney ny craishteyderyn er ve cremmit son jelliu ny cassey caslys kirpey caillinyn as cur çhingyssyn ee roish.[7] Ren reagheyderyn taishbynys fassan ayns Madrid ayns Mean Fouyir 2006 jiooldey craishteyderyn va coontit myr fo-hrimmidagh liorish fwirran lheeys va ry-laue.[8] Ayns Toshiaght Arree 2007 hooar y craishteyder Ooraguayagh Luisel Ramos baase voish crampyssyn cree voish mee-veeaghey. Va'n çhuyr eck, Eliana Ramos, ny craishteyder foast, as hooar ee baase jeeragh lurg taishbynys roievollagh shiartanse dy veeghyn roish shen. Car lhing shey mee, v'ad mastey tree craishteyder hooar baase rere y vee-veeaghey. She Ana Carolina Reston va'n dreih elley .[9] Ayns 2015, va leigh currit ayns bree 'sy Rank chur y shirreydys ayn fogrey magh slaynt ny craishteyderyn liorish lhee roish taishbynyssyn fassan. Ta'n leigh shen gra dy lhisagh jallooyn reaghit ayns earishlioaryn ve soilshit.[10]

Craishtey earishlioarEdit

Ta'n craishtey fassan goaill stiagh craishtey eaddeeyn ayns earishlioaryn chammah. 'Sy Çhapaan, shimmey sorçh dy chraishteyder earishlioar fassan t'ayn. She craishteyderyn ta ry-gheddyn dy mennick ayns earishlioaryn fassan as ta craishtey da ny h-earishlioaryn shen ny lomarcan ny craishteyderyn liehlagh (専属モデル senzoku moderu?).[11] Er y laue elley, ta craishteyderyn straiddey, ny "craishteyderyn lhaihder" (読者モデル dokusha moderu?, er nyn aagherraghey myr "dokumo"), nyn graishteyderyn amateyragh ta craishtey dy paart-emshiragh son earishlioaryn fassan ayns bishaghey rish nyn obbyr scoill ny rish nyn giartagyn.[11][12][13] Neugollrish craishteyderyn keirdey, t'eh er smooinaghtyn dy vel craishteyderyn straiddey gollrish y dooinney cadjin rere caslys as cha nel ad ry-akin er ny roievollee.[12] Chammah's shen, cha nel conaantyn liehlagh rish earishlioaryn fassan ec craishteyderyn straiddey.[11] My vel craishteyder straiddey feer ennymoil, foddee ad çheet dy ve nyn graishteyderyn liehlagh.[11] Ta ram jallooagyn fassan as kiaulleyderyn 'sy Çhapaan toshiaghey nyn goorse bea myr craishteyderyn straiddey, goaill stiagh Kaela Kimura as Kyary Pamyu Pamyu.[12]

Craishtey follanidEdit

 
Craishteyder follanid marish tromman

Ta'n craishtey follanid jeeraghey er taishbyney kirp layntoil, hionney. Dy mennick ta possanyn muskylyn shickyr ec craishteyderyn follanid. Ta trimmid y chraishteyder ny smoo er yn oyr dy vel trimmid ny muskylyn ny smoo na trimmid y vlennick; ansherbee, ta blennick kirpey ny sloo er yn oyr dy vel ny muskylyn feer hionnit as grainnit. Ta craishteyderyn follanid ymmydit ayns soilsheenys earishlioar; ayns cooishyn er lheh, she ynseyderyn follanid persoonagh t'ad. She roortee as spoyrteyryn ta craishteyderyn follanid elley as t'ad cohirrey myr deiney keirdey ayns cohirraghyn follanid as figoor. Ta shiartanse dy yantee gobbraghey ayns margaghyn mooarey lheid as ayns York Noa, Lunnin as 'sy Ghermaan as jantee chraishtee follanid oc. Ga dy vel margey mooar son ny craishteyderyn shoh, ta'n chooid smoo jeh ny jantee shoh gobbraghey myr fo-yantagh ta cur craishteyderyn er oaie ta geddyn nyn jeet stiagh myr craishteyderyn traghtee. Ta earishlioaryn ayn ta jeeraghey ayns troa y chraishtee follanid ny ayns troa yn ollanid as y claynt.

Craishtey drualtaghEdit

 
Craishteyderyn drualtagh nyn shassoo er y vrat-laare ruy — Hollywood, California

Ta'n craishtey drualtagh jeeraghey er y cheintyssaght as, rere shen, cha nel ny shirreydyssyn leayr; dy cadjin, t'ad bunnit er chooilley chraishteyder er lheh. Foddee craishteyderyn drualtagh ve jeh moaadys ny cummey erbee. Ren studeyrys voish 2014 ren scrutaghey skeealyn craishteyderyn drualtagh prioseil dy vel y craishteyder drualtagh meanagh 1.68 m (5' 6") er yrjid, 54kg (119 lb( er trimmid as 0.73 (corrillagh bouin-lhesh).[14]

Cha nel stundayrt çhynskylagh ayn son craishtey drualtagh as t'eh anchasley voish çheer gys çheer. Son y chooid smoo, ta craishteyderyn drualtagh craishtey ayns feaillereyn, earishlioaryn fer, lheid as Playboy, craishtey bikini, craishtey fo-eaddagh ben, craishtey feddish, feeshanyn kiaull, as obbyr vrash ayns scannaneyn. Ansherbee, ta craishteyderyn ard-ghooagh garraghey stiagh 'sy chraishtey prentit traghtee as t'ad ry-akin ayns faghtyssyn eaddagh-snaue, bikini as fo-eaddagh ben.

T'eh er smooinaghtyn dy nee ayns Sostyn ta bun y vargey son y chraishtey drualtagh tra ren The Sun cur Page 3 er bun ayns 1969,[15] meer 'sy phabyr-naight oc va taishbyney jallooyn glieemianagh craishteyderyn Penthouse as Playboy. Voish 1970, va ny craishteyderyn taishbynit gyn baare-eaddeeyn. Ayns ny 1980yn, cohirreyderyn The Sun goll ny yei as ren ad croo nyn meeryn Page 3 hene.[15] Haink craishteyderyn drualtagh gys y chione toshee marish craishteyderyn lheid as Samantha Fox. Myr eiyrtys er shen, ta margey mooar 'sy vargey drualtagh 'sy Reeriaght Unnaneysit as shimmey jantys craishtee drualtagh t'ayn jiu.

Cha row yn craishtey drualtagh noa-emshyragh currit er bun agh ayns ny 1990yn. Car y lhing shen, va'n çhynskyl fassan cur craishteyderyn thanney marish shillaghyn begnagh firryn er oaie. Ren shen faagail baarney 'sy çhynskyl. Ren craishteyderyn fassan eigsoylagh va coontit dy ve ro-hraghtee ny ro-chruillagh tarmestey rish stundayrtyn y çhynskyl as ren ad geddyn bollagh elley. Ten craishteyderyn lheid as Victoria Silvstedt faagail y çhynskyl fassan as hoshee ad craishtey da earishlioaryn fer.[16] Ayns ny jeihaghtyn roish shen, va shassoo son Playboy ny cooish son coayl jantyssyn as screeuyn-drommey.[17] She claghyn va Playboy ren shiaulley coorseyn bea Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, as Anna Nicole Smith. Haink er Pamela Anderson ve cha ennymoil voish Playboy as v'ee jargal paartyn y gheddyn er Home Improvement as Baywatch myr eiyrtys.

Ayns ny 1990yn meanagh, va straih earishlioar fer lheid as Maxim, FHM, as Stuff currit er bun. Ec y traa cheddin, ren earishlioaryn elley goaill stiagh Slitz ass y Toolynn (roish shoh, she earishlioar chiaull v'eh) aa-chowraghey ad hene myr earishlioaryn fer. Roish yn eddyr-voggyl, va ny h-earishlioaryn shen feer chadjin mastey fir ayns nyn jeigeyryn as nyn feedyn leah er yn oyr dy vel ad coontit ny smoo blastallagh na ny haink rieau. Lesh aase y vargey drualtagh, hie yn fassan magh ass faagailee as haink ny kyrloghederyn Brasseelagh stiagh. Haink er y vargey drualtagh, va jeant seose son y chooid smoo jeh craishteyderyn fassan traghtee as craishteyderyn prentit traghtee, dy ve ny haanrey lesh hene er oyr ennoilid v'echey. Ansherbee, feeu ayns margaghyn mooarey lheid as y Reeriaght Unnanneysit, cha nel craishteyderyn drualtagh lhiettalit rish un jantys ny lomarcan er yn oyr nagh vel ad jargal shassoo dy argidoil er nyn ging hene marish un jantys. V'eh, as ta foast, cadjin dy liooar dy vel craishteyderyn drualtagh goaill ayrn ayns quaaltyssyn "paag-as-insh" fo nyn sooreeyn marish fir ard-ghooagh. Ta imraaghys y skibbagh lhiabbee currit roish liorish nyn leggadyn roie ny nyn aa-leggadyn.[18] Haink er craishteyderyn drualtagh, lheid as Jordan t'er enney jiu myr Katie Price, dy ve nyn enmyn çhaghlagh er yn oyr dy row craishteyderyn Page 3 cha cadjin ayns ny pabyryn-naight baghtagh. Rere 2004, ren craishteyderyn Page 3 jinjagh cosney eddyr £30,000 as £40,000,[15] raad va craishteyderyn nagh row er Page 3, rere 2011, cosney eddyr £10,000 as £20,000.[19] Ayns ny 2000yn leah, hie craishteyderyn drualtagh, as craishteyderyn drualtagh yeearree, magh er claareeyn çhellveeish rieughid lheid as Big Brother son ard-ghoo y gheddyn.[20] Ren shiartanse jeh aa-chommee Big Brother coorseyn craishtee drualtagh rahoil magh ass nyn 15 minnid jeh'n ard-ghoo oc. Agh, haink er y vargey drualtagh dy ve ro-haieit as hie ram earishlioaryn fer fo, goaill stiagh Arena, Stuff a sFHM ayns ny Steatyn Unnaneysit.[21] Car y lhing shen, haink er ram craishteyderyn drualtagh dy ve nyn markee jysk, goaill stiagh Kellie Acreman as Lauren Pope son cur rish nyn jeet stiagh. Ayns quaaltys 2012, dooyrt Keeley Hazell nagh nee y rooishtid y bollagh share son rah y gheddyn as dy row "yn aigh eck ve mastey yn 1% jeh deiney ren geddyn rah."[22]

Craishtey an-ghraaghEdit

Neughollrish ny craishtaghyn elley, ta'n craishtey an-ghraagh çheet er sorçh jeh'n chraishtey raad ta jeeraghey yn chraishteyder nyn eaddeeyn y ghoaill jeh son greinney keintyssagh y jeeagheyder y hayrn magh. Dy mennick, ta'n craishteyder jannoo jallooyn ayns straih raad ta ny chied jallooyn taishbyney yn craishteyder marish eaddeeyn as, ayns oardagh, ta'n craishteyder roostey dys y jalloo jerrinagh raad ta'n craishteyder gyn eaddagh erbee. Dy mennick, ta'n straih shen goll rish straih phornograafagh raad ta'n craishteyder jannoo laue chooilleeney ny commyssey marish dooinney ny deiney elley. Chammah's shen, ta ny jallooyn shen goll rish scannaneyn pornograafagh raad ta'n skeeal cloiet er y scaailan. S'goan y craishteyder an-ghraagh nagh vel gobbraghey 'sy çhynskyl pornograafagh chammah, goaill magh adsyn ta jannoo yn craishtey shen dy amateyragh er-linney.

Craishtey feddishEdit

 
Bianca Beauchamp craishtey corsaid latex

Ta craishteyderyn feddish craishtey eaddeeyn feddish ny greieyn ta ceaghley nyn girp ayns aght feddishagh ny ayns soiaghyn feddishagh. Ta ram craishteyderyn feddish taishbyney ny ta enmyssit fassan feddish, modyn eaddeeyn ta coontit barbagh as brasnagh as ta kiaddit son freggyrt, kynn, ny mian lajer toghtagh y hayrn magh. Ta ny h-eaddeeyn shen goaill stiagh cullee farkee fassanit dys coamree lheid as eilley kirpey as cullee fansee far-skeeal sheanse.

Foddee craishteyderyn feddish goaill stiagh bondiaght, ceaghley kirpey, fotografeeaght feddish as fotografeeagh ghrualtagh andooghyssagh chammah as coamree fansee keintyssagh (.i. cullee voidjyn, cullee voandyr, a.r.e.). Foddee craishteyderyn feddish craishtey son fotografeeaght as frastyl er cooishyn as gienseyn BDSM.

Shimmey aghteyr pornograafagh as craishteyder drualtagh ta gobbraghey chammah myr craishteyderyn feddish.

Craishtey caghlaaeeEdit

Ta'n craishtey caghlaaee çheet er banglane jeh'n çhynskyl craishtee ta goaill stiagh craishteyderyn nagh vel covial rish ard-smooinaghtyn yn aalid. Dy mennick, ta craishteyderyn caghlaaee gobbraghey ayns cooillyn er lheh marish mod persoonagh ta shassoo son fo-chultooryn er lheh, lheid as y fo-chultoor gothagh, steampunk, as feddishaght. Foddee craishteyder caghlaaee ve crackan-jallooit, broddit, ny ceaghlit, ny ve marish folt fo-chultooragh lheid as ve baarit, daahit marish daa neu-najooragh, ny jeant myr mohawk. Foddee craishtey caghlaaee ve marish eaddeeyn ny dyn.

Hooar y craishtey caghlaaee coodaghey cadjin 'syn ym-ysseraght ayns ny 2000yn as ny 2010yn, trooid crooaght as cadjinaghey ynnydyn-eggey craishtee chaghlaaee, gollrish GodsGirls as SuicideGirls. Ta ynnydyn-eggey craishtee chaghlaaee cur nyn graishteyderyn er oaie marish nyn bersoonidyn chammah as marish nyn shillaghyn as nyn gurrymyn.

Craishtey moyllaghEdit

Ta craishteyderyn moyllagh failt son aggyrtys ceaueyder ry hoi gientyn, shirveish, cowrey, ny sheiltynys y chur er oaie liorish eddyr-obbraghey marish ceaueyderyn cummyssagh. Ta'n chooid smoo jeh craishteyderyn moyllagh tayrnagh as aalin er tuarystal fishigoil. T'ad kiarail fysseree mychione y ghientyn ny yn çhirveish as jannoo ad tayrnagh da ny ceaueyderyn. Ga dy vel foddeeaght yn eddyr-obbraghey giare, ta'n craishteyder moyllagh livrey taghyrtyn ta aahoilshaghey yn gientyn ny yn çhirveish t'ad shassoo son. Ta'n cummey shen jeh'n vargeeaght roshtyn ny sloo ceaueyderyn rere costys ny ta'n soilsheenys tradishoonagh (lheid as stoo prentit, radio, ny çhellveeish); ansherbee, ta tastid y cheaueyder er y chowrey, gientyn, shirveish, ny colught gleashit ny smoo liorish yn taghyrt bio shen.

Foddee faghtyssyn margeeys ta goaill ymmyd jeh craishteyderyn moyllagh taghyrtyn ayns shappyn, ynnydyn shappal, taishbynyssyn traghtee, taghyrtyn moyllagh er lheh, clubyn, ny ayns buill magh fo'n aer. Foddee craishteyderyn moyllagh ve ymmydit myr cuirreyderyn çhellveeish son quaaltyssyn y yannoo marish deiney ard-ghooagh ec aundyryn scannane, taghyrtyn spoyrt, as reddyn elley.

Craishtey ellynEdit

Ta craishteyderyn ellyn shassoo son ellyneyr reayrtagh erbee myr ayrn jeh'n obbraghey crootagh. DY mennick, she deiney keirdey ad craishteyderyn ellyn ta kiarail imraa ny ardsmooinaght da obbyr ellyn ta goaill stiagh caslys deiney. Ny sorçhyn ellyn ta goll er chroo liorish craishteyderyn ellyn, t'ad goaill stiagh tayrn figgyr, peintal figgyr, jallooderys, as fotografeeaght, agh foddee mean erbee ve ymmydit. Ta craishteyderyn failt son y chooid smoo da brastyllyn ellyn ny liorish possanyn neuformoil jeh ellyneyryn oayllagh ta çheet ry-cheilley dy rheynn magh costys y chraishteyder.

Craishtey InstagramEdit

Haink er craishteyderyn Instagram dy ve feer ennoil liorish ymmyd lheeadagh yn ym-ysseraght heshoil. Ta ny craishteyderyn shen feddyn rah myr eiyrtys er earroo ny h-eiyrtyssee ta oc er Instagram as ardanyn ym-ysseraght elley. Cha nel ad unnane as ny craishteyderyn bunnit, lheid as Cara Delevingne as Gigi Hadid, ta goaill ymmyd jeh Instagram son nyn goorseyn craishtee tradishoonagh y chur er oaie,[23] ga dy vel craishteyderyn ennagh, lheid as y craishteyder Playboy Lindsey Pelas, goaill toshiaght nyn goorseyn craishtee dy tradishoonagh as garraghey dys Instagram ny yei. Ta craishteyderyn elley goaill ymmyd jeh Instagram son nyn goorseyn y lhiassaghey, lheid as Rosie Roff ren obbraghey myr craishteyder fassan roish my row ee feddynit magh trooid Instagram as ren feddyn obbyr myr caillin croa 'sy doarneyraght Americaanagh. Ayns cooishyn ennagh, ta Instagram kiarail ardan da craishteyderyn neu-screeuit tayrn arrey ass jantyssyn as scrialtee schlei.[24] Hie yn craishteyder Americaanagh Matthew Noszka stiagh 'sy cheird erreish da ve feddynit er Instagram liorish Wilhelmina Models.[23]

ImraaghynEdit

  1. Rusu, M (Averil 2013). Interview with Catwalk Model Rusu (Printed Publication). Expatriates Magazine. Er ny hashtey veih'n lhieggan bunneydagh as er ny gheddyn er 2013-10-19. Feddynit er 2013-05-14.
  2. Vogt, Peter (2007). Career Opportunities in the Fashion Industry. Info base Publishing, 191–192. ISBN 978-0-8160-6841-8. 
  3. Getting Started as a Model. associationofmodelagents.org.
  4. Sawyer, Meieli. How to become a plus size model. Plussize.com. Er ny hashtey veih'n lhieggan bunneydagh as er ny gheddyn er 2011-09-30. Feddynit er 2011-09-19.
  5. "Fashion Models: By the Numbers", ABC News (2011-09-14). Feddynit magh er 2012-06-24. 
  6. "The Vanishing Point" (2008-02-07). Feddynit magh er 2017-02-17. Archived from the original on 2016-12-27. 
  7. Nanci Hellmich, Do thin models warp girls' body image?. USA Today 9/26/2006
  8. Skinny models banned from catwalk. CNN. 13 Mean Fouyir 2006.
  9. Ban on stick-think models illegal. Jennifer Melocco, The Daily Telegraph, 16 Toshiaght Arree 2007.
  10. Kim Willsher, Models in France must provide doctor's note to work, The Guardian, 18 Nollick 2015.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 Janette, Misha (2010-09-16). "A day in the life of a Japanese 'hostess' model", CNN. Feddynit magh er 2019-10-29. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 Satsuki (2015-12-07). "How Dokumo, "Amateur Fashion Models", Have Been Making Impacts on Japanese Girls' Fashion Culture", Tokyo Girls Update. Feddynit magh er 2019-10-29. 
  13. Kobayashi, Tetsuo (2019-01-14). "女子大生読者モデルは平成で終わる?ファッション誌で激減。もう憧れの存在ではない。" (ayns Shapaanish), Business Insider. Feddynit magh er 2019-10-29. 
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